Monday, January 20, 2020
Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase Aims This is an experiment to examine how the concentration of the substrate Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme Catalase. Background Information Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules, which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reaction within the cell. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalase is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver. It is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from cells. Hydrogen Peroxide is the poisonous by-product of metabolism. Catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen as shown in the equations below. Formula It is able to speed up the decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide because the shape of its active site matches the shape of the Hydrogen peroxide molecule. This type of reaction where a molecule is broken down into smaller pieces is called an Anabolic Reaction. Apparatus Need For The Experiment. 1. 250 cm3 Glass Beakers 2. Glass Thistle Funnel 3. Graduated Measuring Cylinder 4. Cork Borer 5. 250 cm3 Glass Cylinders. 6. Digital Stop clock 7. Scalpel 8. Tap and Distilled Water 9. Plastic rule. 10. Safety Goggles. Method To test out how the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide affects the rate of reaction first set up the apparatus and prepare the different concentrations of Hydrogen peroxide as below: Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Volume of Hydrogen Peroxide (cm3) Volume of Tap Water (cm3) 25 vol 250 0 20 vol 200 50 15 vol 150 100 10 vol 100 150 5 vol 50 200 1. Using the cork borer, take a sample of potato, cut this piece in cm intervals using the scalpel and plastic rule. Then cut these a further 2 sections, so there is now 5 sections per 1cm piece of potato.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ written by Shirley Jackson and Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ written by D.H. Lawrence both use the stories settings in contradicting ways in order to present the seriousness of the stories. Jackson used the setting as a way to sidetrack the readers while Lawrence used the setting toÃ construct the story. Setting is an important piece in any story and is extremely true in the two short stories that are about to be shared. In Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , the setting is used by Jackson in an effort to distract that reader. By distracting the reader by using beautiful memory visuals, the author is able to formulate an ironic ending to the story. The setting is illustrated to be warm, bright, happy and peaceful. Some readers may suggest that the scene is pleasant and in a certain way, suspenseful. The author described the day to be Ã¢â¬Å"clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day.Ã¢â¬ (Jackson p.250) Jackson used the specific description in hopes to create a harmonious, calm and amiable scene for the readers. This calming mental picture of the atmosphere made the readers believe that the story will have a happy ending. The characters also played a role in throwing off the horrific ending. Throughout the story, the character all remained calm and happy. As the readers continue to read the story, they soon realize the truth about what is truly about to happen. This deceives the idea of a perfect ending. The portrayal of the buildings, town and the lottery box all added to the setting that throws readers off track of the gruesome reality of what is going to happen. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ , written by Lawrence, the setting is the center of the short story. Lawrence also used real life places throughout the world and London to help create the setting in short story. The author also used real life events and hobbies to help the reader really feel involved in the story and not feel the need to try very hard to mentally visualize the setting. Lawrence outlines the characters struggles to constantly be competing with the neighbors. The in-depth description that Lawrence uses of the house and gardens paint a picture of the conflicts of income and actual lifestyle. The mood and environment fit well with this story setting. There is not a lot needed from the author to paint the scenery. Since a lot of readers have personal experiences with horses, the readers are able to read and understand without much thought. As soon as a reader can relate to an event, the little details are not needed to pull the reader into the story. There is one similarity and a few differences in these two short stories. The one and only similarity of these two short stories is that in both of these short stories, the settings are reasonable, realistic and convincing. The settings in both stories are either real locations or places that have a huge possibility of existing. In difference, Jackson used the setting to distract the audience from the gruesome, shocking and horrific ritual of stoning that was about to take place. The readers were all swayed from this reality until the end of the story. Contradicting, Lawrence incorporated the setting into the story and used vivid descriptions to allow the readers to add their own memories. Lawrence created the setting in an effort to draw the readers in as the story unfolded. In conclusion, although both stories had a similarity, they both used the setting in different ways. Shirley used the setting to distract the readers while Lawrence used the setting as the main focal point in the story. Both stories surely provided the readers with firsthand examples on how important the setting can be in a story and how it can have a huge impact on the readers perception. Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ written by Shirley Jackson and Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ written by D.H. Lawrence both use the stories settings in contradicting ways in order to present the seriousness of the stories. Jackson used the setting as a way to sidetrack the readers while Lawrence used the setting to construct the story. Works Cited: Ã¢â â Kennedy, X. J, and Gioia, Dana,eds.. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, Compact Interactive Edition. 7th ed. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2013 Ã¢â âJackson, Shirley. Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ . 250-256. Ã¢â âLawrence, D.H. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ . 234-244
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Star clusters are just what the name says they are: groupings of stars that can include anywhere from a few dozen to hundreds of thousands or even millions of stars! There are two general types of clusters: open and globular.Ã Open Clusters The open clusters, such as the Beehive in the constellation of Cancer and the Pleiades that grace the sky in Taurus, are groups born in the same area of space but are onlyÃ looselyÃ gravitationally bound together. Eventually, as they travel through the galaxy, these starsÃ wander apart from each other. Open clusters usually have up toÃ a thousand or so members, and theirÃ stars areÃ not more than 10 billion years old. These clustersÃ are much more likely to be found in the disks of spiral and in irregular galaxies, which contain more star-forming material than older, more evolved elliptical galaxies. The Sun was born in an open cluster that formed about 4.5 billion years ago. As it moved through our rotating galaxy, it left its siblings behind long ago. Globular Clusters Globular clusters are the mega-clusters of the cosmos. They orbit the central core of our galaxy, and their thousands and thousands ofÃ stars are held together by a strong mutual gravityÃ that creates a sphere or globe of stars. Generally speaking, stars in globulars are among the oldestÃ in the universe, and they formed early in a galaxyÃ¢â¬â¢s history. For example, there are stars in globulars orbiting our galaxys core that were born when the universe (and our galaxy) was quite young.Ã Why Are Clusters Important to Study? Most stars are born in these big batches within large stellar nurseries.Observing and measuring stars in clusters gives astronomers great insight into the environments in which they formed. Stars born recently often are more metal-rich than those that formed much earlier in history.Ã Metal-rich means that they contain more elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as carbon and oxygen.Ã If their birth clouds were rich in certain kinds of elements, then those stars will contain higher amounts of those materials. If the cloud was metal-poor (that is, if had a lot of hydrogen and helium, but very few other elements), then the stars it formed will be metal-poor. Stars in some globular clusters in the Milky Way are quite metal-poor, which indicates they formed when the universe was very young and there hadnt been time to form enough of the heavier elements.Ã When you look at a star cluster, youre seeing the the basic building blocks of galaxies. Open clusters provide the stellar population of a galaxys disk while the globulars hark back to a time when their galaxies were forming through collisions and interactions. Both stellar populations are clues to the ongoing evolution of their galaxies and of the universe. For stargazers, clusters can be fantastic observation targets. A few well-known open clusters are naked-eye objects.Ã The Hyades is another choice target, also in Taurus. Other targets include the Double Cluster (an pair of open clusters in Perseus), the Southern Pleiades (near Crux in the Southern Hemisphere), the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (aÃ fabulous sight in Southern Hemisphere constellation Tucana), and the globular cluster M13 in Hercules (easy to spot with binoculars or a small telescope).
Friday, December 27, 2019
86% Say Yes 14% Say No The use of cell phones in drivers have been linked too frequently in accidents. There are too many distractions in life as it is, are we so arrogant to think that we are such amazing drivers that we can do several things at once? Most accidents involving cell phones wouldn t have happened if the driver wasn t distracted. When we drive that should be the only activity we are doing. Posted by: Gri5Helpful Report Post Like Reply 0 0 Cell phone usage while driving should be made illegal everywhere to make the roads safer. Many studies have indicated that driving while talking on a cell phone leads to more accidents. Given that fact, there is no reason not to legislateÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And when your mind is busy doing that, it is too easy to miss subtle signs of an impending accident. Posted by: N3vinFace Report Post Like Reply 0 0 Yes, because it is worse than drunk driving I think everyone know how dangerous it is wheather it is a hand held device or hands free. Statistics, neuroscientists, police tell us about the potential threat the driver with cell phone imposes. That s why the only argument of the opponents is that it is impractical. Well, you can not know until you try, first of all. And secondly, even it cannot be banned completely, it definitely can substantially reduced. Posted by: Anonymous Report Post Like Reply 0 0 I agree that talking on a cell phone while driving is very dangerous. Safety on the road is the most important thing. Using the mobile phone during driving has always been a problem, all around the world. Studies show that talking on the cell phone while driving is really dangerous: it could raise the rate of accidents about 50% and more. They say that using the cell phone to text while driving, for example, is like driving after drinking 9 beers. Posted by: 5hinyMaaI Report Post Like Reply 0 0 Yes, there are too many accidents already, people need to pay attention to their driving. I think it should be against the law to talk on a cell phone while you reShow MoreRelatedCell Phones While Driving Persuasive Essay1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestopic of my persuasive paper, I chose to research the issues surrounding the question, Should regulations regarding the use of cell phones while driving be standardized? I say absolutely, the safety of the millions of American motorists should be considered more important than convenience. The matter of this kind of behavior happens all day, every day across our nation. Especially for the young generation between the ages of 16-29 but lately. Despite the growing dependency on cell phone usage I veRead MorePersuasive EssayÃ¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ®Cell Phones and Driving1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPersuasive EssayÃ¢â¬âCell phones and driving Suzy Campbell Title Balancing my coffee on my left leg, eating a donut with my right hand, using my cell phone with my left hand, driving with my right knee and having a conversation with a friend at the same time are surprisingly enough all legal, as long as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t interfere with my driving. While all these distractions can potentially interfere with my driving, the one most people often notice is the use of cell phones. Although using cell phonesRead MoreDistracted Driving Annotated Bibliography1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnnotated Bibliography Distracted Driving. Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2012. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. In this article Ã¢â¬Å"Distracted DrivingÃ¢â¬ , many distractions are mentioned other than just cell phone usage, such as changing the radio station or driving with kids in the back seat. It is stated that the dangers from distracted driving are because of the decrease in brain function and inability to pay full attention to the road. These practicesRead MoreAnalysis Of Cellphones By Rex Murphy1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe essay, Cellphones by Rex Murphy is an informal persuasive essay on the topic of cell phones and how distracting they are. The essay is a cause and effect essay that implicitly conveys the thesis, arguing that cell phones are distracting and inhibit driving. The writer attempts to use humour mixed with a very negative tone to raise awareness among Toronto citizens of the dangers of cell phones, following the movement that calls for cell phones to be banned in cars in Toronto. Although distractedRead MorePersuasive Essay Topics1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay topic, or a teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay, this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to todays society, but I believe I am happy with the results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24Read MoreCell Phone While Driving949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCell phone usage while driving is a major source of distraction that could potentially lead to accidents and consequently cause injury or loss of life. Technology has had a way of dealing with distractions by coming up with hands-free cell phones mounted on the dashboards of most vehicles. But, even so, cell phones are still a source of distraction when driving regardless of the fact that they are hand-held or not. Therefore, even the choice for authorities to come up with handheld bans still thatRead MoreTexting and Driving Essay1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChantay Lowe English 1301 Persuasive Essay People should be cited for texting while driving because not only are drivers putting themselves in danger but also everyone else around them. Statistics have indicated that over 6,000 deaths and well over half a million injuries have occurred due to drivers using cell phones in 2011 alone. Drivers sending or receiving test messages take their eyes off of the road for at least five seconds which is enough time to cover an entire football fieldRead MoreBUS 303: A Persuasive and Descriptive Essay on Traffic on Freeway1838 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Persuasive and Descriptive Essay The loud screech of brakes and chaos of cars madly attempting to avoid hitting each other froze the rush hour traffic to a standstill in pure fear. You could literally smell the burned rubber, fuel and fear in the hot afternoon sun. In an instant of extreme paranoia all the drivers on the freeway stopped and looked to see what had nearly caused at least four cars to go hurtling into each other. In the fast lane sat a young man chatting on his cell phone andRead MoreThe Effects of Texting on Literacy: Is It Corrupting Language?3736 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesto another person(s), with a cell phone using letters and not words. SMS means Ã¢â¬Å"short messaging serviceÃ¢â¬ . Meaning sending and receiving short, most of the time very short messages, to and fro one another. Texting also refer to the art and skills of using abbreviations and other techniques to create SMS and instant messages. Texting does not always follow the standard rules of English grammar, nor usual word spellings. Texting has become so widely used and persuasive that it is almost regarded asRead MoreOutline Of A Thesis Statement3601 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThesis / Claim Station: Your claim or thesis statement is the most important part of your argumentative essay. It is the sentence where you state your main argument and outline how you will prove it. There are many ways to structure a thesis statement, but we will work on one specific model: counter-claim-reasons (CCR). Here is an example: Although surveillance cameras may be expensive, schools should install them because they increase safety, reduce vandalism, and keep both teachers and students
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Cross-Cultural Psychology Stephanie Sorrell Psychology 450 February 24, 2014 Dr. Jenne Meyer Cross-Cultural Psychology Introduction Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior. There are many different branches and fields of psychology. The field of psychology that will be discussed within this paper is called cross-cultural psychology. Cultural psychology will also be discussed. To begin these types of psychology will be defined and the so the differences and similarities between the two will also be discussed. In order to fully grasp an understanding of cultural and cross-cultural psychology, the role of critical thinking within this scientific study as well as the methodology used in this field of psychology will alsoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For the most part, cultures have more freedom than they had back when cross-cultural psychology first became a scientific study. Cultures are mixing together more and more as humans become more interested in living outside of what they are use to or have always done (Johannson, 2013). The freedom to mix in this nature opens the door for what use to be consid ered cultural norms to create new cultural norms. Critical Thinking and Methodology in Cross-Cultural Psychology As stated earlier, cross-cultural psychology is the scientific comparison of two completely different cultures. In order to compare two or more things with one another, one must possess a certain set of critical thinking skills (Shiraev amp; Levy, 2010). Therefore, the ability to think critically is necessary in order to do any type of research in cross-cultural psychology. Many of the questions that research in cross-cultural psychology tries to answer include such things like how different cultures or people within that culture react to similar situations (Shiraev amp; Levy, 2010). An example would be when an earthquake has hit certain cultures. If we were to look at how people in California handle or react to earthquakes and then look at how the people of Haiti react to an earthquake, we would find out how differently these cultures react to the same devastation.Show MoreRelatedThe And Race Expert Dr. Beverly Daniel Tatum1312 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages in psychology at Wesleyan Univer sity, and her M.A. in religious studies at Hartford Seminary. She also received her doctoral degree in clinical psychology at the University of Michigan. Dr. Tatum began her career serving as an Associate Professor and Assistant Professor at Westfield State College and a Lecturer of Black Studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara. She later went on to serve in various roles at Mount Holyoke College. Tatum served as the chair of the psychology andRead MoreSubjective Well-Being Essay1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinfluences. From an objective viewpoint, well-being is a state of consciousness that arises from a combination of internal and external factors, and money is an unstable external influence in defining subjective well-being. Money as a determinant for subjective well-being is influenced by several cultural influences. For example, Dittmar (2008) points out a study on UK and Croatian students that revealed more materialistic inclinations in UK students who were more subject to lower well-being inRead MorePersonnel Management and Organizational Behavior1101 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshave the fields of psychology and sociology contributed to our understanding of OB? 2. How does globalization affect a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s people skills? 3. Why is it important to replace intuition with systematic study in our attempts to understand behavior with organizations? 4. What is Ã¢â¬Å"workforce diversityÃ¢â¬ ? Comprehending and deciphering these questions should increase a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s competence within an organization. Contributions of Psychology and Sociology Psychology and Sociology haveRead MoreWhat Does A Social Psychology Research Tell Us About Factors That Enhance Or Deter Attraction?788 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessocial psychology research tell us about factors that enhance or deter attraction to others? Are people predictable on any of these contributing factors? Are there attraction factors that are universally the same? Explain. Are their differences in friend attraction and romantic attraction? Why? How does attraction differ by age and/or gender? Provide examples. Are these individual and/or linked to the cultural context? What does the empirical literature tell us about cross-cultural (not cross-racial)Read MoreIm an Immigrant and Im a Human1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfor several years before settling down in Guam by my ninth birthday, when my father contracted a job with an international hotel franchise. Learning to navigate the cultural discrepancies in my life soon became a norm, one that shaped my values and priorities. Through trial and error, I developed skills to adapt and succeed across cultural boundaries as I encountered new people ceaselessly through my travels. While I capitalized on the benefits of and loved my nomadic life, I could not ignore the inevitableRead MoreIntelligence Between Intelligence And Culture1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof Wesler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Addition (WAIS,IV) in 2008 by David Wesler was meant to minimise the bias. According to Westen, Burton and Kowalski (2006), intelligence assists human beings to take control of their lives and it varies cross culturally because the power dynamics differ in each society and this leads to differences in behaviour and line of thinking. These authors describe intelligence as multifaceted, functional and can be defined by culture because it is universal andRead MoreHuman Resource Management Processes and Practices1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInÃ¯ ¬âuence of Culture on Human Resource Management Processes and Practices. Dianna Stone and Eugene Stone-Romero, eds. New York: Psychology Press, 2008. 340 pp. $38.25, paper. Although national and international workforces have b ecome increasingly culturally diverse, human resource systems and processes often lag in adapting to multiculturalism in ways that will reduce the cultural bias of existing human resource systems and enhance organizational effectiveness. Nearly 15 years ago Sharon Lobel and I developedRead MoreOverview of SK Telecom in South Korea1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDefining the Problem The position with SK Telecom in South Korea seemed like a dream job for Linda Myers, who would become one of the first American female executives in the South Korea (p. 124). Yet Myers, and her organization, underestimated the importance of understanding the nuances of Korean culture. Myers had worked abroad as an expatriate before and assumed that all countries outside the United States would pose similar challenges. She was wrong to make this assumption. Although shedRead MoreApplying Anthropology to Nursing Essay1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescategories and ideals of health. Focal points also include the cultural and historical conditions that shape medical practices and policies, the social organization of clinical interactions, and the uses and effects of medical technologies. In applying Anthropology to the profession of nursing I would be looking into health, disease, illness, and sickness in human individuals which would be undertaken from the holistic and cross-cultural perspective. This is distinctive of anthropology as a disciplineRead MoreThe Importance Of African American Education1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Historically, race and class have been the defining factors in determining the quality of education received by people in the United States ( Gordon, 1990; Williams Land, 2006). The western curriculum serves the cultural interest of whites, who have their roots in the European countries. It does not favor the cultural interest of African Americans, but it would only make sense that African American people are educated on true African history. The African American quest for education
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Is Gabe behind on his immunizations? If so, what? Is Gabes weight gain appropriate? What safety teaching is appropriate for the nurse to provide Gabes parents? Answer: Communication child: Abdominal pain: Infants- Infants cannot speak so exact cause of pain cannot be explained. Toddlers: They stammer, cant express clearly, might have swallowed something. Pre-schooler- Problem in understanding if it is localized pain or appendix pain School ager- Exact cause cannot be easily identified common in this age group Teenager- Might occur due to food poisoning and improper diet like fast foods,etc Patient-1: Child has not taken Hepatitis B vaccine at the time of his birth. Rotavirus, DPT, polio, and influenza vaccine need to be given in the 6th week (McKinney et al., 2013). Babies put on between half and an ounce weight everyday. So a child is little short, he should have 4.5 kg weight. Take care to develop good sleeping habits in, check infection in babies by bathing them in warm water, washing their clothes with Dettol. Check body temperature and feed them at regular interval. P-2: Sallys vocabulary is not appropriate; she should speak the full sentence with clear sound articulation. Her weight ok ,14-15 kg weight is normal for three years old. Temper tantrums are normal at this age. It occurs due to change in chemicals of a brain or due to lack of understanding of language. Parents should be strict at times, avoid stress by giving baby feed at the time, start thinking of toddlers and practice ways of distraction. Patient 3: Balance the calories and develop healthy food habits in your child. Playing soccer is good, a child needs to be active. Remove calorie-rich food and give low-sugar and low-fat diet like banana, apple, etc. No issue in playing soccer, more physical activity essential for an obese child. Patient 4: Meningitis and Hepatitis B vaccine needs to be taken Screening for depression, academic weakness, aggressive behavior, teens personality style, etc. Having knowledge of sexual development and desire with friends, openly talking about it. Parents should give good moral guidance to children (Perry et al.,2014). Reference: McKinney, E., James, S., Murray, S., Nelson, K., Ashwill, J. (2013). Maternal-child nursing (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN: 978-1-4377-2775-3. Perry, S. E., Hockenberry, M. J., Lowdermilk, D. L., Wilson, D. (2014).Maternal child nursing care. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Language Comprehension and Production Psychologists have long been interested in language. It was motivated by ChomskyÃ¢â¬â¢s work in linguistics, and by his claim that the special properties of language require special mechanisms to handle it. The special feature of language on which Chomsky focused was its productivity. Early psycholinguists described our comprehension and production of language in terms of the rules that were postulated by linguists (Fodor et al. 1974). As the field of psycholinguistics developed, it became clear that theories of sentence comprehension and production cannot be based in any simple way on linguistic theories; psycholinguistic theories must consider the properties of the human mind as well as the structure of the language (Fodor et al. 1974). Language comprehension, basically, is the ability to understand language. However, this ability is much more complex than it seems on the surface. Language comprehension is more complicated than it might at first appear (Mark Ylvisaker 2008). We will write a custom essay sample on Language Comprehension and Production or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Scovel claimed that understanding language, like producing it, is such an automatic task that it may appear to be a relatively straightforward process (1998: 50). Language comprehension develops along with the brain and is able to be enchanced with the use of gestures. Though it is unknown exactly how early comprehension is fully developed in children, gestures are undoubtedly useful for understanding the language around us. With time, comprehension may be able to be fully understood (Kelly et al. 2009). Comprehension involves much more than just sounds, letters, and lexical meanings, it also involves the semantics of sentences. Psycholinguists first began to examine the comprehension of sentences by basing their research on the model of sentence grammar originally proposed by Chomsky in the 1950s. In comprehension of sentences is very important Automated Transition Networks (ATNs) which can be used to predict the next word or word sequence in any sentence which is spoken or written. Scovel claims that ATNs have met with limited success, and this particular approach is not very popular, because it seems to be too simple to explain sentence comprehension on the basis of the single process of sequential prediction (1998:65). The easiest for all listeners and readers to make predictions about the meaning of aÃ sentence is garden-pathing. Garden-pathing is such a natural comprehension strategy, we are unaware of it until it is interrupted, as it is unintentionally in poor writing, or intentionally in jokes or psycholinguistic research.Ã¢â¬ (Scovel 1998: 66). Scovel claims, Ã¢â¬Å"The comprehension of words is much more complex than the processing of phonemes. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s is indeed a very complex psycholinguistic process and one model that psycholinguists have adopted to account for this complexity is Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)Ã¢â¬ (Scovel 1998: 55). The PDP perspective argues that we use several separate processes when we try to understand spoken or written language. Scovel claims, that these processes are used at all levels of linguistic analysis (1998: 55). A clear example of the usefulness of a PDP approach to the comprehension of words is an experience many of us encounter on an almost daily basis, what psychologists term the Tip-Of-the-Tongue (TOT) phenomenon (Scovel 1998). Psycholinguists have studied the TOT phenomenon. They discovered, that suddenly lost word is not always completely forgotten. Parts of the word are often subject to recall and, most commonly, these remembered fragments are the first letter of the fi rst syllable (Scovel 1998). The processes of speech production fall into three broad areas called conceptualization, formulation, and articulation (Levelt 1989). At the highest level, the processes of conceptualization involve determining what to say. These are sometimes also called message-level processes. The processes of formulation involve translating this conceptual representation into a linguistic form. Finally, the processes of encoding involve detailed phonetic and articulatory planning (Levelt 1989). The product of conceptualization is a preverbal message. In conceptualization, speakers conceive an intention and select relevant information from memory or the environment in preparation for the construction of the intended utterance. The American psycholinguist David McNeill has gone on record with an interesting mentalistic account of how speech is first conceptualized in the human mind. His theory is that primitive linguistic concepts are formed as two concurrent and parallel models of thought (Scovel 1998). This is syntactic thinking, which shows the sequence of words which we typicallyÃ think of when we talk about how language is developed, and imagistic thinking, which creates a visual mode of communication. McNeilÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that syntactic thought and imagistic thought collaborate to conceptualize conversation, is quite convincingly demonstrated by the way in which speech utterances and ordinary gestures seem to be tied and timed together in any conversation. Scovel said that although we know very little about how speech is initiated at this first stage of conceptualization, we have psycholinguistic evidence to help us understand the successive stages of production, so it is easier for us to describe and to understand LeveltÃ¢â¬â¢s second stage, formulation ( Scovel 1998) We have seen the initial stage of conceptualization is so far removed from the words we actually speak and write that it is difficult to define this phase of production. At the second stage of speech production, we move close enough to formulation of the speech. Scovel has claimed Ã¢â¬Å"Conceptualization is hard to conceptualize, but formulation is much easier to formulateÃ¢â¬ (Scovel 1998). The psychologist Karl Lashley published one of the first attempts to account for the way speakers sequence strings of sounds, words, and phrases together so rapidly and accurately, and his essay was influential enough to be included in the first book ever published in English,which focused exclusively on then very new field of the psychology of language (Scovel 1998: 30). Karl Lashley talked about how common is to make spelling errors when one is typing, and he mentioned how he misspelled Ã¢â¬ËwraspidÃ¢â¬â¢ with a w, while typing Ã¢â¬Ërapid writingÃ¢â¬â¢, most probably because as he w as about to type rapid, he anticipated Ã¢â¬Ësilent wÃ¢â¬â¢ in the following word (Scovel 1998: 31). Over the past few decades, psycholinguists have become excited about a new way of discovering how we put words into our mouths: they look at what happens when we trip over our tongues (Scovel 1998). Slips of the tongue or typographical mistakes are normal occurrences for everyone both in speaking and writing. Scovel has claimed that slips of the tongue allow us to peek in on the production process because we know what the speaker intended to say, but the unintentional mistake freezes the production process momentarily and catches the linguistic mechanism in one instance of production (Scovel 1998: 31). The recognition of speech errors goes back more than a century. Scovel says that Ã¢â¬Å"Spoonerisms, like the unfortunate use of Ã¢â¬Ë the breast in bedÃ¢â¬â¢ instead Ã¢â¬Ëthe best in breadÃ¢â¬â¢, are named after the Victorian cleric and teacher, William Spooner, who used to make infamous slips in speech production. Spoonerisms are slips of the tongue in which an actual word or phrase is created, often with a humorous twist to the meaning which was intendedÃ¢â¬ (1998:31). The third stage of speech production, articulation, is also very important. This stage of speech production is similar to what happens when all the information selected by a word processing program goes from your computer to your printer. In fact, if the printer is not functioning properly, there is then no evidence that the message was ever even composed. It is the same with the production of speech. Scovel says, Ã¢â¬Å" The conceptualization stage might perceive itself as the primary and ultimate composer of communication, and the formulation stage might pride itself as the conductor and orchestrator of speech sounds, but without the instruments of articulation, the music of our voices remains unhread and unappreciatedÃ¢â¬ (Scovel1998:41). Psycholinguists have developed a number of competing models to try to account for the complexity of speech articulation, and they have tried to employ various sources of evidence to peek into this complicated process, but much of the articulation remains a mystery. Scovel claims, Ã¢â¬Å"Despite the increasing sophistication of modern neurology and the development of techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans to examine the way the human brain programs neuromuscular movements, we still have little understanding of how the cerebral software programs the anatomical printer to articulate sounds in such a glib mannerÃ¢â¬ (Scovel 1998). Speech production does not end with articulation, however; the fourth and final stage of production is the process of self-monitoring. Self-monitoring of action is important for smooth performance in many areas of human behavior. For instance, when we reach out to grasp for an object,Ã we are able to monitor our arm movement and quickly modify the trajectory in case an obstacle is suddenly encountered. The most widely accepted monitoring theory (Levelt, 1989) suggests that monitoring proceeds through language perception, that is, speech error detection is primarily based on the parsing of ones own inner and overt speech. Scovel claims that Ã¢â¬Å" A self-monitoring stage presumes that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t just communicate with others, they communicate with themselves; they donÃ¢â¬â¢t just listen to others, they listen to themselvesÃ¢â¬ (1998). In this paper I have talked about language comprehension and language production in separate sections. In the first section I have talked about language comprehension which was divided into comprehension of sentences and words. The second section was about language production which has been divided into conceptualization, formulation, and articulation. In fact, the production and comprehension of language are tremendously complex activities. Speech production has been studied less than language comprehension because of the difficulty in controlling the input (our thoughts).