Friday, July 3, 2020

Management and Leadership Across Cultures - Free Essay Example

MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP ACROSS CULTURES INTRODUCTION There are two main influences which affect the performance of individuals in the work environment. Such influences include: motivation and the type of leadership style. While neither of these influences has scientific nature, there has been done a tremendous amount of research which identifies few theories and conclusions about the reasons of peoples performance, how are they performing, and why the behaviour of every person differs from the other which is responsible to put them in position of leadership. Behaviour of humans is a subtle reflection of the individual differences in a similar as it is with the similarities. The differences in individuals are due to many characteristics and influences. For instance, traits of personality keep their focus on the differences which makes every person a unique being. Systems which were made up of regulations, rules and procedures which are now replaced by other necessary requirements for enhanced services to customers and greater flexibility which results in empowerment, personal initiatives and increased levels of decision-making in individuals. For achievement of this, it is really important to have a better understanding of the human behaviour and of the things which have a great impact on an individuals reactions and actions. MOTIVATION Motivation is defined as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the extent to which the persistent efforts are directed towards a goalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Campbell, Dinette, Lawler Wick). An important aspect of motivation is the amount of efforts which are applied to any job. Along with efforts, willingness of an individual to accomplish the task assigned with complete patience and perseverance. It also requires a persistent effort in relation to the objectives to be achieved, only right direction can guide and motivate an individual. MOTIVATION THEORIES 1. Maslows theory of hierarchy Abraham Maslow developed a theory of motivation hierarchy which states that every human have five basic needs in a hierarchy shown in the figure below: source: 2. Alderfers ERG theory: Theory developed by Clayton Alderfer states that there are three basic needs which influence personal growth of an individual which includes existence, relatedness, growth. 3. Herzberg theory of motivation Herzberg gave a theory of the fulfilment of hygiene needs or the factors of maintenance of a person which then affects the motivation levels. Examples of hygiene needs include conditions at work, salary, relations with fellow employees, personal life, status, compensations, rewards. He also identified some crucial factors which act as motivators in true sense and these notably are recognition, work, advancement, responsibility and achievements. COMPARISON OF THESE THEORIES Source: There are many theories of motivation which were put forward by the pioneers but all such theories conclude that the positivity in a persons life is very crucial to motivate him to do any sort of work or to surmount any difficulties with ease. And this positivity is created by the fulfilment of needs or desires which keep an individuals mind stress free, this then gives a boost to accomplish all the tasks with perseverance, patience and persistent efforts. LEADERSHIP Leadership is defined as a process to influence people for directing their efforts for the achievement of particular aims or goals.1 It is widely recognized as a very important tool in the international management study, but still only little efforts have been made for studying systematically and for comparing approaches of leadership throughout the world. Behaviours of leaders are commonly translated into three recognized styles: (1) authoritarian leadership (2) paternalistic leadership and (3) participative leadership. Authoritarian leadership is about using the wo rk oriented behaviour which is designed for ensuring the accomplishment of tasks . Such behaviour of leader has the typical involvement of the use of mere one way communications from managers to subordinates. The attention is usually focussed on procedures of work, progress of work and the obstacles which need to be tackled for achieving the desired goals in time. Although such style of leadership is often effective to handle crisis, but some leaders also employ this style as the primary option regardless of the circumstances. Paternalistic leadership is about the coupling together of work-centred behaviour along with a protective concern for employees. This style of leadership is generally a two way track because if an employee works hard for the company, then the company will certainly take care of him. Such leaders demand hard work from all the employees and for this company provides them with benefits of security such as retirement and medical programs. Participative leade rship involves the use of both people-centred and work oriented approaches. Participative leaders encourage the people for playing an active role in order to assume the control of the work, and such authority is usually highly and well decentralized. RESEARCH METHODS USED FOR THIS EVALUATION Qualitative research section discusses the cultural diversity in the tourism and hospitality industry for the perspective of qualitative research. This research is more likely to collect information about relatively small number of cases as compared to the quantitative approach which gathers more of the limited information but with greater amount of cases (Veal 2006). There are different methods of doing qualitative research ; however the most widely used technique in development and research is an interview. Approaches of an interview vary with respect to the kind of the information a researcher wants to collect for supporting the development and research work (Ojasalo et al., 2010). T his research work has used an in-depth interview to serve for the purpose of doing qualitative research method. An in-depth interview is very similar to the questionnaire-based survey but it gets deeper in the topic, and it also encourages much of the talk among respondents while explaining their answers (Veal 2006). The research article by Korjala, 2012 on the improvement of cultural diversity workforce provided an insight to the different aspects of diversity in the cultures at a workplace and other important issues related to this topic concerned. In this work, the researcher had done the implementation of about seven interviews to a target group of managers in a multinational organisation JW Marriott Antonio Hill Country Resort Spa, USA. The respondents were taken from different levels of management which involved two supervisors, two directors and managers and an executive manager. The researcher chose this method because there is a need to clarify the works of the project and for supporting the facts of cultural diversity at a workplace. First part of the interview as given in the Appendix was done to gather back-ground information of a managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s personal and cultural values and the researcher had asked the managers to give a general definition of cultural diversity and the definition of the same in a workplace. It was then followed by questions regarding present situation of cultural diversity, the interview included the parallel questions which were related to other questions. The purpose of such similar questions was aimed for the collection of varying perspectives and different situations at their workplace about cultural diversity. RESULTS AND EVALUATION OF THE DIFFERENT VIEWS GIVEN BY THE MANAGERS 1. Views regarding background of the cultural values For starting with, adherence of managersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ attributes regarding traditional cultural showed a significant variation. Two out of seven managers (28.6%) favou red to follow the traditional values whereas just one manager (14.3%) answered that cultural values are not that important and also he does not pay any attention to the importance of cultural values. The majority of responses (42.9%) were following cultural values on a rarer scale as indicated in Figure given below: 2. Perceptions regarding the importance of the cultural diversity The cultural diversity stands for the managers to have a mutual understanding what cultural diversity denotes. They all had indicated that the mixture of different backgrounds when grouped together in any organization there is a sharing of the different values of every employee and this provides much broader perspectives to the aims and ambitions of that organization. One manager (14.3%) had stated that: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“it gets more related to ones ethnical backgrounds which must not be discriminated in every workplace.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ Instead, different workforces will be adapting and welc oming everyoneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s culture along with the celebrations during the work day. All the managers gave a positive opinion about the vitality and vigour of the cultural diversity when they were interviewed to define importance of diversity in cultures in the management of hospitality and tourism industry. Majority of them (71.7%) highlighted this factor to be extremely absolutely important. The question which then followed, requested a particular importance of cultural diversity in a workplace. The response given by all the managers was unilateral and they approved the phenomenal importance of the cultural diversity. The response quoted by them was as follows: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Understanding the staff and co-workers, sharing ideas and educating them about different culture are needed in order to complete a great pro-ductive team in this industry. The company will have a great product at the end to deliver to guests.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Two managers (28,6%) highlighted tha t it is important due to communication and relating to different backgrounds helps to understand where people come from. It is vital to understand both other employees as well as customers which may have unfamiliar etiquettes and customs, such as expressing things. 4.2.3 Influences in a workplace The interview also focused on influences of cultural diversity in the workplace. All of the seven managers responded that cultural diversity has beneficial influences on the organization. Six managers (85,7%) agreed that cultural diversity management will even influence on productivity in the long run. Four managers (57,1%) credited cultural diversity as a potential benefit to hospitality business due to global dimensions and customer service as a balanced approach (see Figure 4). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The corporation operates on a global level and therefore needs to be aware of any changes in the hospitality business. It will prepare the com-piny for the future.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  One respondent (14,3%) agreed that people have mobility and access new markets to gain exposure to new cultures. This manager also noted that Asian markets in particular are becoming presently significant in the global market. Only this manager expressed a sole interest in global dimensions. Two exclusively emphasized cultural diversityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s ability to increase the motivation of employees which results in improved customer service. Cultural diversity is important for employees to relate to and understand diverse clientele as well as co-workers. According to Devine et al. (2007, 22) a diverse workforce can sup-ply a greater variety of solutions to problems and become more innovative in customer service. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The organization practices warm heart and family atmosphere which will automatically reflect to customers. They will have a cosy experience which brings loyalty and value.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  It will be an advantage to build a professional relationship w ith the clientele they are serving as well as the employees. When asking about cultural diversityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s reflection to work environment, three of seven managers (42,9%) claimed that Human Resources Management is taking it into consideration and place a high value on cultural diversity in a work environment (see Figure 5). There are training and groups with respect to cultural diversity management. One respondent (14,3%) rejected it to obtain any reflection to work environment. The last three managers (42,9%) associated their responses with personal values which relating to Marriott values. These values highlighted open door polices and how to treat employees as family. One of Marriottà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s core principles states that by treating employees well, they will in turn take care of the customer, resulting in the customer and the customer will come back (Marriott 2012). In the area of organizational culture influences between departments, managers unilaterall y responded that organizational culture differs from between depart-ments within the property. Functional cultures such as products and services have dissimilar characteristics from department to another (Schneider Barsoux 1997, 57). Some differences are drastic like in the housekeeping de-partment. Four respondents (57,1%) mentioned housekeeping as a department that contains a concentration of employees with certain ethnic background. Ad Best practices of implementing cultural diversity The interview also gathered information about practical ways to implement cul-tural diversity knowledge in the workplace. Managers gave numerous sugges-tions, some of which are currently practiced by JW Marriott. Others were sug-gested hypothetically as ideal cultural practices for the organization. Managers had the option to give more than one suggestion. Four managers (57,1%) be-lieved that a diversity committee would be the best solution (see Figure 6). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“People would get into group, express past stories in an open form and educate people.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Four managers (57,1%) advocated for organizing a cultural event. Suggestions included: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Every quarter of the year there could be a cultural day of certain culture with its music, food and language.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  All the managers agreed on participating in a cultural day if it was arranged by the organization. All the managers mentioned a language bank to be an effective tool which is currently implemented by JW Marriott. A language bank is program where em-ployees are available to interpret different languages for other employees who need translators. A language bank facilitates understanding and communication between employees with different languages. According to one of the managers JW Marriott has over 30 languages spoken within the property [ Supinder Kaur] [CTH number : 72702]

Monday, May 25, 2020

Emily Grierson From A Rose For A Rose For Emily - 1233 Words

Judith Fetterley argued in her critical essay that Emily Grierson from a â€Å"Rose for ‘A Rose for Emily’† was empowered and victimized by her gender and class. However the girl from â€Å"Boys and Girls† and Gertrude from Hamlet had not been as lucky as Miss Emily. In a â€Å"Rose for ‘A Rose for Emily’† Emily Grierson was the daughter of Mr. Grierson, who was a respected man in Jefferson. After his death Miss Emily still conserved her title of a lady even if all the town folks knew that she didn’t have money left. Miss Emily took advantage of the fact that she was a lady to not pay the tax to the new town leaders by saying that she was exempted of taxes by the previous mayor of the town. She knew that the town people would not bother to ask her to pay the taxes that she legally had to pay as her father was dead and they were concerned about Miss Emily’s mental health, but it was mostly because Emily Grierson was a lady a nd it would be considered disrespectful to force a woman of this status to settle her debt. Moreover, the town folks were complaining about a powerful odor emanating from her house. The Judge Stevens present at that time estimated that it was very inconvenient to mention to a woman of this rank that her house smells bad. So he decided that a few men from town would sneak in Miss Emily’s house to spread lime around the Griersons’ property. Even this time the town people could not confront Miss Emily for her acts. When she started dating a northern man named Homer Barron,Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of A Rose For Emily Essay1643 Words   |  7 PagesBeing An Outcast: Emily As Manifesting Thematic Alienation in Faulkner’s â€Å"A Rose for Emily† I. Introduction Being taught in high schools and universities all across the nation, William Faulkner’s short story â€Å"A Rose for Emily† has achieved a great deal of both academic and mainstream respect in the United States. In being arguably one of Faulkner’s strongest stories, and since Faulkner himself has assumed the position of being one of the great masters of American fiction, â€Å"A Rose† is undoubtedlyRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1577 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"A Sarah Markins Dr. Bibby ENG 107 February 11, 2015 â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner â€Å"A Rose for Emily†, written by William Faulkner in 1931, follows a series of peculiar events in Miss Emily Griersons life. Written in third person limited, Faulkner utilizes flashbacks to tell of the period between the death of Emily’s father and her own passing. Split into five short sections, the story starts out with the townspeople of Jefferson remembering Emily’s legacy and how each new generation ofRead MoreCharacter Analysis of Emily Grierson in A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner757 Words   |  3 Pageswas a salute ... to a woman you would hand a rose† (Outà ³n 63), this is how William Faulkner is quoted when explaining the meaning for the title of his short story, â€Å"A Rose for Emily.† In his short story, Faulkner summarizes the life of a forsaken woman, whom, while heavily respected by her town, is also quite pitied. Faulkner works to give the reader a sense of empathy towards his character while he describes the tragedy that is her life. Emily Grierson, is eventually found to not be the only victimRead MoreEmily Killing Homer: A Crime of Passion or an Act of a Frightened Girl864 Words   |  3 PagesEmily Killing Homer: a Crime of Passion or Act of Frightened Girl Faulkner’s tail of â€Å"A Rose for Emily † is a tail of thousand stories. Set up in the old south, at the same time it intrigues you and dazzles you. It tells the story of a daughter from an upper class family that ends up killing her male companion, Homer Baron. A motive for killing him is not stated in the story, but if red carefully one could be implied. Critiques disagree on what might have motived Emily to kill homer. Some sayRead MoreEmily Grierson : Story And Town Symbol Of The Old South1535 Words   |  7 PagesEmily Grierson: Story and Town Symbol of the Old South William Faulkner’s â€Å"A Rose for Emily† is a story about an elderly woman, Emily Grierson who represents the old south. â€Å"A Rose for Emily† consists of five parts. The story begins with the death of Emily Grierson. Then, the narrator takes the readers into a flashback to the time Miss Emily Grierson is alive. The narrator explains Grierson as a representation of the old south. The narrator describes Miss Emily Grierson actions rather than explainRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1729 Words   |  7 Pages2015 â€Å"A Rose for Emily† In every neighborhood there is always that one house that is a mystery to everyone. A house that everyone wants to know about, but nobody can seem to be able to dig up any answers. It’s the type of place that you would take any opportunity or excuse to get to explore. The littler that is known, the more the curiosity increases about this mysterious place or person. In the short story â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner, this mysterious person is Emily Grierson, and theRead MoreThe Two Main Characters Louise Mallard and Emily Grierson Are Both Similar and Dissimilar.861 Words   |  4 Pagesshort stories Story of an Hour and A Rose for Emily, the two main characters Louise Mallard and Emily Grierson are both similar and dissimilar. These two characters lived in similar ideological societies and they shared a similar pattern of development. But also they differed in their goals and how they thought they could achieve their goals. First, Emily Grierson and Louise Mallard both shared a common shackle, the society in which they lived. Both Emily and Louise were women, and they bothRead MoreEmilys Rose Essay652 Words   |  3 PagesEmilys Rose Emily lives in the small town of Jefferson. Jefferson is a town where her family has lived for generations, and where her family is known to have â€Å"held themselves a little to high for what they were;† so they were treated as such. Emily is kept home by her father and almost hidden from the entire town; the gentlemen callers who dared come calling for Miss Emily’s hand were only â€Å"vanquished† by her father. They were not of â€Å"social standing† to be permitted her time and company.Read MoreA Rose for Emily889 Words   |  4 PagesLiterary Analysis for â€Å"A Rose for Emily† Sometimes a Rose is Not a Rose: A Literary Analysis of â€Å"A Rose for Emily† In the short story â€Å"A Rose for Emily†, written by William Faulkner, the negative impact of Emily’s upbringing by an overprotective father, leads to incredible pattern in her life and the obvious mental illness that takes over as she not so graciously ages. While written in five sections, the first and last section is written in present time, and the three middle sectionsRead MoreEssay Comparison of A Rose for Emily and The Possibility of Evil1185 Words   |  5 PagesComparison of A Rose for Emily and The Possibility of Evil In the short stories â€Å"A Rose For Emily,† by William Faulkner and â€Å"The Possibility of Evil,† by Shirley Jackson both authors create similar characters and settings that illustrate daring images of evil. Both Emily Grierson and Adela Strangeworth are women who share similar characteristics yet pose completely different motives. Their stories take place in close-knit towns, which play essential roles in their motives for evil. Emily Grierson and Adela

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Should You Apply to Graduate School With a Low GPA

GPA questions are tough. Theres no guarantee when it comes to graduate school admissions. While some graduate programs apply cutoff GPA scores in order to weed out applicants, this is not always the case. We can make predictions, but there are many factors at play — even factors that have nothing to do with you can influence the availability of slots in a given program and your chances of getting in. Now, remember that graduate programs look at your overall application. Grade point average (GPA) is one part of that application. Several other factors, outlined below, are also important components of the graduate application. Graduate Record Exam (GRE) Grade point average tells the committee what you did in college. Scores on the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) are important because the GRE measures an applicants aptitude for graduate study. Academic performance in college often does not predict academic achievement in grad school, so admissions committees look to GRE scores as a primary indicator of applicants capacities for graduate study. Admissions Essays Admissions essays are another important part of the package that can make up for a low GPA. If you address the topic and express yourself well it can allay concerns that arise because of your GPA. Your essay may also offer you the opportunity to provide context for your GPA. For example, if extenuating circumstances harmed your academic performance during one semester. Beware of griping about your GPA or attempting to explain four years of poor performance. Keep all explanations concise and dont draw attention away from the central point of your essay. Recommendation Letters Recommendation letters are critical to your admissions package. These letters demonstrate that faculty are behind you — that they view you as grad school material and support your academic plans. Stellar letters can trump a less-than-stellar GPA. Take the time to nurture relationships with faculty; do research with them. Seek their input on your academic plans. GPA Composition Not all 4.0 GPAs are equal. The value placed on GPA depends on what courses youve taken. If you take challenging courses, then a lower GPA can be tolerated; a high GPA based on easy courses is worth less than a good GPA based on challenging courses. In addition, some admissions committees compute a GPA for major coursework to assess a candidates performance in the courses that are deemed essential to the field. All in all, if you have a solid application package — good GRE scores, an excellent admissions essay, and informative and supportive letters -- you can offset the effects of a less-than-stellar GPA. That said, be cautious. Carefully select schools to which to apply. Also, choose safety schools. Consider delaying your application to work hard to increase your GPA (especially if you dont gain admission this time around). If youre looking at doctoral programs also consider applying to masters programs (with the intention of possibly transferring to a doctoral program).

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Woman Of A Bride - 1637 Words

In addition, young females who are going to get married, are required to meet certain expectations in order to determine if the female is able to become a bride in South Indian culture. Thus, they are confined, unfit in other people s’ eyes, to be allowed to discover who they want to be. Resultantly, females feel as if they are slowly being strangled from their oppressing culture, eventually leading them to develop certain perspectives. With vast numbers of families so focussed on following their cultural rules, child marriages occur quite often where the male spouses are much older than the brides. As a result, these innocent adolescent girls are frightened as they are not given any sort of choice when it comes to deciding their own future and are heavily silenced if they ever speak their minds. Rather, it is more effective that the elders choose the â€Å"perfect† groom because the elderly are often associated with wisdom. For example, it is quite apparent that a fem ale’s life is controlled for every big milestone in her life with marriage being a key event that the bride herself has no say in. Appropriately, arranged marriages are a traditional way of living (â€Å"India†) and is something that must be arranged by the groom and bride’s parents (â€Å"India†) to ensure that the marriage will be prosperous in later years. Astonishingly, the bride and the groom are supposed to interact with one another as little as possible (â€Å"India†) and can even be between an uncle and a nieceShow MoreRelatedScolding Brides And Bridling Scolds : Taming The Woman s Unruly Member920 Words   |  4 PagesIn Scolding Brides and Bridling Scolds: Taming the Woman s Unruly Member, Lynda Boose explains that when Kate puts her hand under Petruchio s boot it is part of the ceremonial custom when a bride was offered a share of property by her intended husband, but also a physical representation of the marriage vow to love, honor, an d obey (182-183). Brides were increasingly indisposed to perform this part of the ceremony is apparent from all kinds of invented fumbling at the altar, for example droppingRead MoreBride Price: Modern Day Female Enslavement? Essay examples1465 Words   |  6 Pagesher father’s house and propose a bride price to perform the traditional marriage rights. Bride price according to Gita Sen is problematic in that it is defined as a payment made by a prospective husband to the family of a woman he wishes to marry (Sen). From Sen’s definition, it is evident that bride price not only highlights the dominance of patriarchy in African societies but emphasizes the objectification of women as payments are made in exchange of a bride/woman. In Diane Johnson’s article, â€Å"TraditionalRead MoreMarriages in Nigeria1200 Words   |  5 Pagesman to one woman, and polygyny, a marriage of one man to two or more wives. In most cultural groups in Nigeria, traditional marriage is usually an arrangement between two families as opposed to an arrangement between two individuals. Accordingly, there is pressure on the bride and bridegroom to make the marriage work as any problem will usually affect both families and strain the otherwise cordial relationship between them. In most Nigerian cultures, the man usually pays the dowry or bride-price andRead MoreFeelings of Oppression in Blood Wedding by Frederico Garcia Larco1178 Words   |  5 Pagescertain disposition towards nature in his thoughts and actions. This later becomes a major basis for developments in the plot of the play, when the Bride and Leonardo act on their true feelings and decide to elope. Thus nature is not only a setting, but also a major theme that acts a s a contrast to the urban setting that is filled with oppression. The Bride is set to marry the Bridegroom; however it is apparent in the play that her true desires lie with Leonardo. Set against a rigid and suppressiveRead MoreBride Price In Uganda.A Common Custom In Uganda Requires1296 Words   |  6 Pages Bride Price in Uganda A common custom in Uganda requires a man to pay his wife’s family in livestock and land to show that he is worthy of her. This custom is known as bride price. Though an ongoing practice, bride price has been ruled as a human rights violation because women are being treated as objects rather than people. Bride price should be discontinued because it is linked to abusive relationships and is inhumane. There is aRead MoreThe Trailer For Kill Bill1552 Words   |  7 Pagescharacter known as The Bride (Uma Thurman), is a former assassin whose former lover, Bill (David Carradine) attempted to kill her on her wedding day. After waking up from a coma, The Bride begins to tell her story about how she was attacked by the Deadly Viper Assassination Squad, which she was once a part of, while pregnant. The trailer begins with the click sound of a revolver s hammer being pulled back, and then firing. The camera is then positioned behind The Bride s butt, as she begins toRead MoreCulture Comparisons Between the !Kung Culture and the Indian Culture954 Words   |  4 Pagesweren’t related to each other. The !Kung people didn’t like to marry or arrange a marriage with other blood related family members even with distant cousins and if a person shared the same surname as one of the family members or even a child if the woman is older, they are forbidden to marry her. The Indian cul ture on the other hand had 36 different Araks or clans with a name for each one which a member from that particular clan used as their surname. Parents were forbidden to marry their childrenRead MoreEssay about Immigration in the US1493 Words   |  6 Pageschildren are raised in a better county.† (Bell 1). For decades, beautiful Russian and Asian women have been seen in catalogs as mail-order brides. Although the mail order bride industry promises American men a beautiful, obedient, foreign wife, it fails to mention the negative atmosphere included within these situations. Mail order brides should be banned in the United States in order to reduce the increase of domestic violence amongst women (Chittenden 5), the testing of aRead MoreEssay On Rites Of Passage1505 Words   |  7 Pagesof the â€Å"vivaha†. This occurs during the marriage ceremony of one s life where the bride and groom tie a piece of their clothing together and walk around the sacred fire seven times, where each round is symbolic as it holds a lifetime vow (Holme and Bowker 1994, 82). I have witnessed this at every Hindu wedding I have attended and this experience has been extremely significant and meaningful as it marks the bride and groom’s transition into their new of stage of life. This rite of passage is an indicationRead MoreEssay about Picture Bride1651 Words   |  7 PagesPicture Bride Picture Bride, released in 1995 and directed by Kayo Hatta, tells the story of many women living in Japan who were chosen to be brides by Japanese farm laborers living in Hawaii. The choice of the bride was based on their pictures. In this movie, Riyo wanted to leave Japan because her parents were killed by tuberculosis. She had heard great things about the paradise in Hawaii, and she agreed to be a picture bride. Riyo’s new husband was Matsuji, and based on his picture he seemed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

When the Ends Justify the Means in Machiavelli´s The...

When the Ends Justify the Means It is commonly believed by both lay people and political philosophers alike that an authoritative figure is good and just so long as he or she acts in accordance with various virtues. If the actions of a ruler are tailored toward the common good of the people rather than himself, then that ruler is worthy of occupying the status of authority. By acting in accordance with social and ethical norms, the ruler is deemed worthy of respect and authority. Niccolà ² Machiavelli challenges our moral intuitions about moral authority in his work, the Prince, by ruthlessly defending the actions made by the state in an effort to preserve power. In particular, all actions made by the state are done in order to preserve†¦show more content†¦Contrary to popular belief, people do not obey an authority because they respect that authority. Obeying authority because it is worthy of respect by its good deeds may seem legitimate at first glance; however, it quickly falls apart upon further r eflection. Rather, people obey an authority figure out of fear of that authority—or more importantly, they fear the consequences that will stem from not obeying that authority. This statement resonates through all levels of hierarchy within the political and economic arena even today. For example, restaurant servers follow the demands of a restaurant manager in fear of losing their job; and restaurant managers will gleefully pay a state income tax out of fear of the actions that will result from not doing so. The reverberations of Machiavellis philosophy are more potent than ever in todays political arena. This is best noted in elections where various candidates compete to occupy an administrative office. For example, every four years, the presidential election takes place. Both candidates will stretch truths, massage facts and make unrealistic promises in an effort to gain followers and thus, seize presidential power. All of these actions are justified in an attempt to win the presidential campaign—the pinnacle of human power in the world today. In an effort to achieve power, there is a fine distinction between being asked to do everything necessary within ones power to achieve this goal, versusShow MoreRelated Machiavelli And Plato Essay1564 Words   |  7 Pages Niccolio Machiavelli (Born May 3rd, 1469 amp;#8211; 1527 Florence, Italy.) His writings have been the source of dispute amongst scholars due to the ambiguity of his analogy of the amp;#8216;Nature of Politics; and the implication of morality. The Prince, has been criticised due to itamp;#8217;s seemingly amoral political suggestiveness, however after further scrutiny of other works such as The Discourses, one can argue that it was Machiavelliamp;#8217;s intention to infact imply a positiveRead MoreThe Prince After The English Civil War1035 Words   |  5 PagesMacchiavelli wrote his book The Prince after having assisted in the creation of a republic in Florence at a time when several Italian states were fighting for control. Philosopher Thomas Hobbes wrote his work The Leviathan under the English Civil War when it was clear that the king was not able to keep his people safe. These backdrops of political unrest helped mold both philosophers attitudes toward both the government and th e people living under it. Machiavelli saw the stability of the state withRead MoreA Machiavellian Ruler Of Shakespeare s Hamlet1196 Words   |  5 Pagesbravery all come into play. Nonetheless, it is the wickedness in a Machiavellian ruler that is reflected in Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet through King Claudius. King Claudius, is a classic example of the type of ruler Machiavelli discusses in his book The Prince. According to Machiavelli, love is better than fear for a leader. However, the real question is how you instill this fear into the people. Is it through murder or treachery or war? Either one can work well depending on the circumstances. SuchRead MoreSocrates And Niccolo Machiavelli1735 Words   |  7 PagesEssay 1: Socrates and Machiavelli Although Socrates and Niccolo Machiavelli lived in different time periods, the political climate that their philosophies were founded on were very similar. The trial of Socrates began after the Peloponnesian War when the new Spartan Tyranny took over the Athenian government. Socrates was accused of corrupting the youth and disrespecting the gods by the Spartan government. 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Utopia and Nineteen Eighty-Four - 604 Words

Oceania is the country where the book 1984 takes place. Its society is far from that of Utopia’s. In Oceania there is no freedom not even to think. They are even creating a new form of English called Newspeak in which all the words that have anything to do with rebellion are deleted. The country is always at war and constantly uses propaganda and mind control tactics to control its populace. In the book 1984 the ruling party tries to control everything even down to the way people think by telling them bad things are good and good things are bad. In 1984, â€Å"From where Winston stood it was just possible to read, picked out on its white face in elegant lettering, the three slogans of the Party: WAR IS PEACE, FREEDOM IS SLAVERY, IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH† (Orwell 6). On the other hand in Utopia knowledge and the spreading of knowledge are paramount. In Utopia, â€Å"From this class of scholars [in Utopia] are chosen ambassadors, priests, [. . .] and the prince himself [. . .]† (More 2.53). The way Utopians receive knowledge is very direct and unfiltered and how they assimilate to classical culture is almost instantaneous (DeCook). In Oceania the ruling entity known as â€Å"The Party† has a police force called the â€Å"Thought Police†. The thought police find and persecute people for â€Å"thought crimes† which are the act of having even a thought of rebellion. The thought police even sometimes use children as spies to catch people in the act of thinking thoughts against The Party. In 1984, â€Å"ThereShow MoreRelated Comparing Nineteen Eighty-Four and Utopia1994 Words   |  8 PagesParallels in Nineteen Eighty-Four and Utopia   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Literature is a mirror of life. In order to reflect their views on the problems in society, many authors of fiction, including Sir Thomas More of Utopia and George Orwell of Nineteen Eighty-Four, use parallels in character, setting, government, and society to link their works to the real world. 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Knowledge Management System in TPG Telecom-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Implementation Process of a new Knowledge management system in a company named TPG Telecom Limited. Answer: Introduction Knowledge management system is very effective e to enhance the performance of a business process in the competitive business environment. The current report focuses on the implementation of knowledge management system in TPG Telecom Limited. Knowledge management is the most important corporate asset for any business as knowledge possessed by the employees is helpful in gaining competitive advantage. So, employees within the company must have clear communication regarding the process of knowledge management (Dalkir Liebowitz, 2011). Once employees would be capable to identify with the significance of knowledge management process then it would not be complicated for the company in the implementation of the knowledge management system in the business. Previously, it was analyzed that company has to face some major challenges while capturing organizational knowledge. This report focuses on some recommendations to implement knowledge management model in the company which was previously p rovided. Report also provides the implementation roadmap of knowledge management system. Proposed knowledge management strategy Knowledge management system is an integral part of the process of KM. Knowledge management system can be defined as any IT system used by the business organization in order to gain knowledge, improvements of collaboration and to locate the source of knowledge. In case of TPG Telecom, company is using Data Mining and Data Warehousing as the knowledge management systems. But there are some issues and challenges faced by the company related to KM process. Company has to face challenges in terms of providing proper security to the important information. Thus, there is the need of a new knowledge management strategy in order to minimize the challenges faced by the company (Hislop, 2013). Previously, a new knowledge management strategy i.e. KM model of Gamble and Blackwell is recommended. Figure 1: KM Model (Source: Gamble and Blackwell, 2001) Gamble and Blackwell (2001) identified social capital as the characteristics of communities of practices that impact on the creation and sharing of knowledge within an organization. They basically defined inter-related dimensions of social capital. In the figure, the model includes four key stages. In the first stage, the role of the organization is to provide various resources of knowledge among the employees. Developing knowledge sources is a significant factor of this model (Argote, 2012). Further, in the second stage, the accountability of the supervision of organization is to acquire the knowledge to analyze the strength and weakness of the organization. So, second step is organizing the information. Third stage is socializing that is helpful for the management of the company to use various techniques and methods to share the knowledge within the organization. Fourth and last stage is internationalization by which management can internationalize the knowledge. This model is help ful in implementing effective knowledge management. So, it is advised to TPG Telecom to implement KM Model of Gamble and Blackwell. Research literature Knowledge management is the set of procedures that is helpful in eliminating the business problems within the organization. Additional issues in the business are resolved by the knowledge management system. Knowledge management is highly interdisciplinary filed that attracts various authors and scholars from various fields (Barnes, 2002). Various scholars have stated that knowledge management gets the correct information in front of correct people at the accurate time. There are some crucial aspects that important to implement knowledge management in the organizations and those factors are competitive differentiation, globalization effects, organizational survival and aging workforce. This is the fact that every organization competes based on their knowledge as products and services are becoming very complex (Solano, 2010). There is the requirement of life-long learning because the rate of innovation is rising. That is the reason that knowledge management is important. Along with thi s, knowledge management system is important as increasing mobility of workforce and early retirements lead to the loss of knowledge in some specific areas. Managing knowledge provides primary opportunity to the companies to achieve the considerable savings important developments in the performance of the employees and competitive advantage (Holsapple, 2013). It is important to align the knowledge management strategy with the organizational strategy. According to Plessis (2007), the knowledge management strategy is helpful in developing a considerate of the knowledge management resources of the organization for the long term benefits. Various models, strategies, tools and techniques are introduced by various researchers for knowledge management. Ali and Fehmida (2004) have designed a mapping model that described about explicit and tacit knowledge. Along with this, Naveed and Kathwala (2004) have developed knowledge city model based on futuristic technologies. This model is useful for enhancing education, business, socio-cultural, and business. Another researcher Saba (2012) designed a conceptual model in order to share the knowledge based on qualitative research on existing tools and models. For the Company TPG Telecom Limited, knowledge management model of Gamble and Blackwell is recommended. Knowledge management model of Gamble and Blackwell depicts the process of implementing the strategy for management in order to divest, build, and improve the knowledge assets. This is the model that focuses on when and why aspects. This model basically puts the knowledge management actions into context. This KM model provides general hypothetical structure and detailed procedures for the execution (Cham, Lim Cheng and Lee, 2016). Strategy implementation In TPG Telecom, there are two knowledge management process used by the company i.e. Data mining and Data warehousing. Along with this, the company is using centralized system in order to store the organizational data. Now, there is the need of new knowledge management system in order to fill the gap of knowledge. After identifying the new knowledge management strategy for TPG Telecom, it is important to develop an effective process to implement the KM strategy. There are various steps i.e. strategy, planning and requirement gatherings that would be included in the implementation process of new strategy (Alavi Leidne, 2001). The decision to apply new knowledge management process can be a critical task for the company TPG Telecom. So, it is necessary to have a strong management support for KM to be successful. First, it is important to understand that KM is the organized procedure in order to create, maintain and look after the company in order to make best use of knowledge so that su stainable competitive advantage or high performance can be achieved (Rao, 2012). The implementation process for new KM strategy in TPG Telecom is described below: Identifying knowledge management program objectives- Before implementing new strategy, defining the process and developing workflows, TPG Telecom needs to identify the key objectives for knowledge management. In order to establish suitable program objective, it is important to identify the business problems. In case of TPG, there are various challenges like cultural changes and conflicts in the leadership. It is observed that company is facing challenges in terms of motivating the employees to overcome the cultural changes. Along with this, keeping the information relevant is another challenge for TPG Telecom. There are some security issues also in the company as it is important to provide security to the relevant information. So, there is the need to implement new KM strategy in order to deal with all these challenges (Abbasi Farashahian, 2011). Preparing for change- Knowledge management is more than just a function of expertise. It basically involves cultural changes among the employees. In case of TPG Telecom, company needs to create a collaborative culture which is required to redesign the organizational values and implementing incentives to meet the organizational goals. For the company, time and support are two important success factors to knowledge management and employees with the time for knowledge management also require coaching and help. Company will provide required training and coaching with the technical tools. Successful implementation of new knowledge management program needs changes in the shared values and norms of the company and employees might resist in the company. In order to minimize the negative impact of the changes, company will establish the approach for managing cultural changes (AlRowaily AlRowaily, 2012). Performing knowledge audit- TPG Telecom will perform a knowledge audit in order to solve the business problems. The knowledge audit will identify the sources of knowledge which are required in the company to solve business challenges. In the knowledge audit process, management of the company will work with the employees to locate the knowledge which they need to solve the business related problems. The audit will start by breaking the information into two catagories i.e. what knowledge is currently used by the company and what knowledge is required. In case of TPG Telecom, there are some factors i.e. leadership, culture, knowledge processes organizational structure and technology infrastructure that impact on the knowledge management system (Albers, 2009). Figure 2: Factors affecting KM strategy (Source: Albers, 2009) In the company TPG Telecom, the knowledge audit will identify what, where, and how exiting knowledge resources are used. In the audit process, there will be cycle processes i.e. acquisition, formation, codification, sharing, access, function and recycle. In the company, management will focus on the business needs, gaps and issues and knowledge required to fill the gaps. Performing IT assessment- In the company, management will focus on information technology assessment including diagnostic areas i.e. IT assets, IT management process, and IT investment performance. Based on the objectives, management will identify the knowledge management technology needs. TPG Telecom needs to provide security to the relevant and important information so; management of the company will identify the right applications and functionality in order to support the business process (Borghoff Pareschi, 2013). The management of the company will examine the IT project management skills i.e. strategic and technical direction setting, and execution and review of the projects. TPG Telecom needs to redesign its IT infrastructure in order to implement new knowledge management system effectively (Martin, 2015). Building blocks for knowledge management- For applying the knowledge management system, there is the requirement of a phased approach. In case of TPG Telecom, management will use technological building blocks and will take a phased approach that will balance the need of knowledge in order to achieve long-term goal. Every block will contribute to the ultimate knowledge management system. Blocks will provide beneficial outcomes to the entire company and each phase in the process will provide the foundation for the implementation. Implementation roadmap Figure 3: Implementation Roadmap The above given figure describes the roadmap of implementing knowledge management system in TPG Telecom. The process of implementation is as follows: Strategic assessment- This is the first step of developing KM initiatives. The overall strategy of the company is to provide high-quality services with the focus on development, productivity and consumer faithfulness. So, the management of the company will perform back-office functions in order to analyze the required business functions in the effective and efficient manner (Albers Whitmore, 2006). Knowledge audit- This will be the second stage while implementing the knowledge management system. Knowledge audit will be done in order to identify the gaps between what is known and what must be known. TPG Telecom is currently lacking with the cohesive knowledge management program. The company is not focused on developing dedicated platforms for sharing the knowledge. This is a basic strategy to focus on the own business objectives (Kebede, 2010). Aligning knowledge strategy with business strategy- After identifying the gaps, it is important to develop appropriate knowledge relationships in the company. Aligning knowledge strategy with business strategy will be helpful in maintaining the efficient process to record the accurate and desired results. This process will be accurate easily understood and readily available. For this manner, communication is the best element that can be used by the management of the company. So, management of the company will connect the identified knowledge strategy with the business strategy (Rollett, 2012). Knowledge management team- After completing the strategic reviews, management will focus on identifying the resources and knowledge management initiatives with the dedicated employees. New initiatives will be sponsored as they will present high probability of success and benefits to the company. Knowledge management team will be prepared that will identify the opportunity cost for implementing new KM system. The KM program will be successful by establishing benefits, determining value and associating benefits with the costs. In the KM team, there will be senior manager, knowledge manager, and knowledge committee including cross-functional team members (Omotayo, 2015). IT assessment and change management strategies- The KM framework will focus on the IT resources i.e. how those resources can be used for the knowledge management. The company relies on providing effective communication services to many customers. IT department operates in the production environment so; management would request to update other production platforms. This competitive industry needs the continuous changes in the services and new offerings so, more business analysts will be assigned to gather the functional requirements. It is observed that there is the lack of exchange and capture of the information. So, there would be organizational learning facilities in order to implement the change and make the employees ready to adapt the changes (Kuo Lee, 2011). Organizational change management strategies- The value and objectives of new knowledge management system is clearly defined. The principles of management provide an environment to the employees to operate efficiently. The culture of TPG Telecom needs to become more collaborative. For this manner, team-building events will be conducted by the management of the company. The employees need to rely on each other for solving the problems in order to reduce the time wasted. The reward system i.e. rewards and recognition, gifts and certificates will also be redesigned. In order to achieve benefits from the KM system, the leadership team in the company will develop an approval for knowledge management and hold the official execution of KM process. Deployment of KM system- KM system and initiatives will be most successful when it will be implemented in phases over a period of time. In case of TPG Telecom, company is using Data Mining and Data Warehousing as the knowledge management systems. But, after identifying the issues in current knowledge management system, KM model of Gamble and Blackwell will be implanted. In order to implement successfully, there would be some efforts i.e. make knowledge associable, conducting employees training, enhancing the flow of information, reducing the work cost and productivity losses. Management of TPG Telecom will deploy number of KM initiatives during the short term (Groff Jones, 2012). Measurement system- Management of the company will measure the effectiveness of knowledge management program. For this manner, various feedbacks will be taken from the employees who are using new knowledge management process. The manager will be accountable to take feedback from this team. Other measures will also be helpful in determining the effectiveness of knowledge management. Employee satisfaction survey will provide the indicator of employee perception and morale. Conclusion Based on the above discussion, it is analyzed that there is the need of new knowledge management system in TPG Telecom as the current knowledge management system is not so much effective to deal with various challenges. There are two knowledge management process used by the company i.e. Data mining and Data warehousing. But, it is recommended that company should use Knowledge management model of Gamble and Blackwell in order to provide the effective and appropriate knowledge to the employees. The roadmap of the system implementation is provided in the report that would be helpful for the company for the effective implementation of new KM system. References Abbasi, A. Farashahian, Y., (2011). Design the Implementation of Knowledge Management System. Retrieved on 11th February 2018 from Alavi, M. Leidne, D. E. (2001). Review: knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues: MIS Quarterly. 25 (1). pp. 107-136 Albers, J. A., Whitmore, B., (2006). Knowledge Management In An Accounting Organization: Journal of Knowledge Management Practice. 7(4). Albers, J. A., (2009). A Practical Approach To Implementing Knowledge Management: Journal of Knowledge Management Practice. 10(1). AlRowaily, K AlRowaily, A. O. (2012). Integration of Knowledge Management system in Telecommunication: A case Study of Saudi Telecom: IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security. 12 (11). Argote, L., (2012). Organizational learning: Creating, retaining and transferring knowledge. Springer Science Business Media. Barnes, S. (2002). Knowledge management systems. Austalia: Thomson Learning. Borghoff, U.M. and Pareschi, R. (2013). Information technology for knowledge management. Springer Science Business Media. Cham, T.H., Lim, Y.M., Cheng, B.L. and Lee, T.H., (2016). Determinants of knowledge management systems success in the banking industry: VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems. 46(1). pp.2-20. Dalkir, K. and Liebowitz, J., (2011). Knowledge management in theory and practice. MIT press Groff, T. and Jones, T., (2012). Introduction to knowledge management. UK: Routledge. Hislop, D., (2013). Knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford University Press. Holsapple, C. (2013). Handbook on knowledge management: Knowledge matters. Springer Science Business Media. Kebede, G., (2010). Knowledge management: An information science perspective. International Journal of Information Management. 30(5). pp.416-424. Kuo, R.Z. and Lee, G.G., (2011). Knowledge management system adoption: exploring the effects of empowering leadership, task-technology fit and compatibility: Behaviour Information Technology. 30(1). pp.113-129. Martin, (2015). How to Implement Company-Wide Knowledge Management System. Retrieved on 11th February 2018 from Omotayo, F. O. (2015). Knowledge Management as an important tool in Organisational Management: A Review of Literature. Retrieved on 11th February 2018 from Rao, M., (2012). Knowledge management tools and techniques. UK: Routledge. Rollett, H., (2012). Knowledge management: Processes and technologies. Springer Science Business Media. Solano, B. R. (2010). Organizational politics, personality and willingness to share knowledge: The meditational role of employee engagement. ProQuest Dissertations Theses